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Customize settings for Windows Firewall with Block all incoming connections, including those in the list of allowed apps
Transmit from the Windows system some IPv6 packets
ping -t -6 www.google.com *(or your router even)*
Notice that the packets get dropped.
Now, disable the Windows Firewall and you get responses.
A bug in Microsoft Windows 7 & 10 code it would appear. It fails to handle packets (tested both DNS and ICMP) originating from the Windows system going out.
Using IPv4 everything works fine.