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network number (or prefix) - which bits in a 32-bit IPv4 address are interpreted as the network number (or prefix) associated with a site
Also known as "network identifier" but not defined so in RFC.
network address is a common known term as well, but that was actually the term used in the old classful (or class based) system. The newer term for CIDR is prefixes. RFC4632: "The solution that the community created was to deprecate the Class A/B/C network address assignment system in favor of using "classless", hierarchical blocks of IP addresses (referred to as prefixes)."
CIDR prefix = 4 octets/mask (example: 172.16.0.0/16)
RFC1812 has the following definition:
The portion of an IP Address that signifies a set of systems.
It is selected from the IP Address by logically ANDing a subnet
mask with the address, or (equivalently) setting the bits of the
address not among the most significant
subnet address mask (a.k.a. address mask). RFC is for IPv4
The terms "network mask" or "netmask" never appear in this RFC. "network mask" appears in RFC4632. "netmask" is a common abbreviation.
RFC950 specifies a 32-bit address mask field. One common example would be the 4 octet decimal dotted form: 255.255.255.0
node's subnet prefix (a.k.a. subnet number) - CIDR prefix form of the network number or prefix. Suitable for IPv6 and IPv4 (RFC4632).